from __future__ import print_function from pyrocko.gui.snuffling import Snuffling, Param, Switch, Choice from pyrocko.model import Station, dump_stations from pyrocko import orthodrome as ortho from pyrocko import util, io, trace import numpy as num from matplotlib.colorbar import ColorbarBase from matplotlib.colors import Normalize from collections import defaultdict from matplotlib import cm r_earth = 6371000.785 torad = num.pi/180. onedeg = r_earth*torad def to_cartesian(items, reflatlon): res = defaultdict() for i, item in enumerate(items): y, x = ortho.latlon_to_ne(reflatlon, item) depth = item.depth elevation = item.elevation dz = elevation - depth lat =*num.pi z = r_earth+dz*num.sin(lat) res[item] = (x, y, z) return res class BeamForming(Snuffling): '''

Beam Forming

Mark a time frame using extended markers. If no time window is selected, all traces currently visible in the viewer will be stacked.
Set a backzimuth and horizontal slowness of the passing wave field.
If no reference point is defined by 'Center lat' and 'Center lon' sliders the geographical center is calculated by taking the average of latitudes and longitudes. This can also be done by pressing Set center by mean lat/lon
If sampling rates differ and Tread different dt by is set to downsample, traces with highest sampling rates (smalles deltat) will be stacked, first. The current stacked trace will then be downsampled to match the next lower sampling rate. The stacking will proceed until another lower sampling rate is found, etc.
Else, if Tread different dt by is set to oversample all traces will by resampled in the frequency domain to match the highest occurring sampling rate.

Tread different dt by - oversample:|downsample.
pre-normalize by std - normalize traces using their standard deviation.
multiply 1/[no. of traces] - stacked trace's will be normalized by the number of summed traces.
Add Shifted Trace - Add time shifted traces to the viewer.
Plot - map station distribution together with the applied time shifts. The arrow indicates the applied back azimuth. Grey dots indicate stations which have not been considered in the stacking.
Save Traces - write stacked traces to mseed file.

''' def setup(self): self.set_name("Beam Forming") self.add_parameter(Param('Center lat', 'lat_c', 90., -90., 90., high_is_none=True)) self.add_parameter(Param('Center lon', 'lon_c', 180., -180., 180., high_is_none=True)) self.add_parameter(Param('Back azimuth', 'bazi', 0., 0., 360.)) self.add_parameter(Param('slowness', 'slow', 0.1, 0., 1.)) self.add_parameter(Choice('slowness unit', 'unit', 's/km',['s/km', 's/deg'])) self.add_parameter(Choice('Treat different dt by', 'diff_dt_treat', 'oversample',['oversample', 'downsample'])) self.add_parameter(Switch('pre-normalize by std ', 'normalize_std', False)) self.add_parameter(Switch('multiply 1/[no. of traces]', 'post_normalize', False)) self.add_parameter(Switch('Add Shifted Traces', 'add_shifted', False)) self.add_trigger('plot', self.plot) self.add_trigger('Save Station', self.save_station) self.add_trigger('Save Traces', self.add_trigger('Set center by mean lat/lon', self.set_center_latlon) self.station_c = None self.z_c = None self.stacked_traces = None def panel_visibility_changed(self, bool): if bool: viewer = self.get_viewer() self._param_controls['unit'].choosen.connect( self.set_slowness_ranges) def set_slowness_ranges(self, ident, state): if state == 's/km': self.set_parameter_range('slow', 0, 1) self.set_parameter('slow', self.slow/onedeg*1000.) elif state == 's/deg': self.set_parameter_range('slow', 0, 100) self.set_parameter('slow', self.slow/1000.*onedeg) def call(self): self.cleanup() c_station_id = ('_', 'STK') if self.unit == 's/deg': slow_factor = 1./onedeg elif self.unit == 's/km': slow_factor = 1./1000. slow = self.slow*slow_factor if self.stacked_traces is not None: self.add_traces(self.stacked_traces) viewer = self.get_viewer() if self.station_c: viewer.stations.pop(c_station_id) stations = self.get_stations() if len(stations) == 0:'No station meta information found') traces = list(self.chopper_selected_traces(fallback=True)) traces = [tr for trs in traces for tr in trs ] visible_nslcs = [tr.nslc_id for tr in traces] stations = [x for x in stations if util.match_nslcs( "%s.%s.%s.*" % x.nsl(), visible_nslcs)] if not self.lat_c or not self.lon_c or not self.z_c: self.lat_c, self.lon_c, self.z_c = self.center_lat_lon(stations) self.set_parameter('lat_c', self.lat_c) self.set_parameter('lon_c', self.lon_c) self.station_c = Station(lat=float(self.lat_c), lon=float(self.lon_c), elevation=float(self.z_c), depth=0., name='Array Center', network=c_station_id[0], station=c_station_id[1]) viewer.add_stations([self.station_c]) lat0 = num.array([self.lat_c]*len(stations)) lon0 = num.array([self.lon_c]*len(stations)) lats = num.array([ for s in stations]) lons = num.array([s.lon for s in stations]) ns, es = ortho.latlon_to_ne_numpy(lat0, lon0, lats, lons) theta = num.float(self.bazi*num.pi/180.) R = num.array([[num.cos(theta), -num.sin(theta)], [num.sin(theta), num.cos(theta)]]) distances =, ns)))[1] channels = set() self.stacked = {} num_stacked = {} self.t_shifts = {} shifted_traces = [] taperer = trace.CosFader(xfrac=0.05) if self.diff_dt_treat=='downsample': traces.sort(key=lambda x: x.deltat) elif self.diff_dt_treat=='oversample': dts = [t.deltat for t in traces] for tr in traces: tr.resample(min(dts)) for tr in traces: if tr.nslc_id[:2] == c_station_id: continue tr = tr.copy(data=True) tr.ydata = tr.ydata.astype(num.float64) tr.ydata -= tr.ydata.mean(dtype=num.float64) tr.taper(taperer) try: stack_trace = self.stacked[] num_stacked[] += 1 except KeyError: stack_trace = tr.copy(data=True) stack_trace.set_ydata(num.zeros( len(stack_trace.get_ydata()))) stack_trace.set_codes(network=c_station_id[0], station=c_station_id[1], location='', self.stacked[] = stack_trace channels.add( num_stacked[] = 1 nslc_id = tr.nslc_id try: stats = [x for x in stations if util.match_nslc( '%s.%s.%s.*' % x.nsl(), nslc_id)] stat = stats[0] except IndexError: break i = stations.index(stat) d = distances[i] t_shift = d*slow tr.shift(t_shift) stat = viewer.get_station(tr.nslc_id[:2]) self.t_shifts[stat] = t_shift if self.normalize_std: tr.ydata = tr.ydata/tr.ydata.std() if num.abs(tr.deltat-stack_trace.deltat)>0.000001: if self.diff_dt_treat=='downsample': stack_trace.downsample_to(tr.deltat) elif self.diff_dt_treat=='upsample': print('something went wrong with the upsampling, previously') stack_trace.add(tr) if self.add_shifted: tr.set_station('%s_s' % tr.station) shifted_traces.append(tr) if self.post_normalize: for ch, tr in self.stacked.items(): tr.set_ydata(tr.get_ydata()/num_stacked[ch]) self.cleanup() for ch, tr in self.stacked.items(): if num_stacked[ch]>1: self.add_trace(tr) if self.add_shifted: self.add_traces(shifted_traces) def center_lat_lon(self, stations): '''Calculate a mean geographical centre of the array using spherical earth''' lats = num.zeros(len(stations)) lons = num.zeros(len(stations)) elevations = num.zeros(len(stations)) depths = num.zeros(len(stations)) for i, s in enumerate(stations): lats[i] =*torad lons[i] = s.lon*torad depths[i] = s.depth elevations[i] = s.elevation z = num.mean(elevations-depths) return (lats.mean()*180/num.pi, lons.mean()*180/num.pi, z) def plot(self): stations = self.get_stations() res = to_cartesian(stations, self.station_c) center_xyz = res[self.station_c] x = num.zeros(len(res)) y = num.zeros(len(res)) z = num.zeros(len(res)) sizes = num.zeros(len(res)) stat_labels = [] i = 0 for s, xyz in res.items(): x[i] = xyz[0] y[i] = xyz[1] z[i] = xyz[2] try: sizes[i] = self.t_shifts[s] stat_labels.append('%s' % (s.nsl_string())) except AttributeError:'Run the snuffling first') except KeyError: stat_labels.append('%s' % (s.nsl_string())) continue finally: i += 1 x /= 1000. y /= 1000. z /= 1000. xmax = x.max() xmin = x.min() ymax = y.max() ymin = y.min() x_range = num.abs(xmax-xmin) y_range = num.abs(ymax-ymin) max_range = num.max([x_range, y_range]) fig = self.pylab(get='figure') cax = fig.add_axes([0.85, 0.2, 0.05, 0.5]) ax = fig.add_axes([0.10, 0.1, 0.70, 0.7]) ax.set_aspect('equal') cmap = cm.get_cmap('bwr') ax.scatter(x, y, c=sizes, s=200, cmap=cmap, vmax=num.max(sizes), vmin=-num.max(sizes)) for i, lab in enumerate(stat_labels): ax.text(x[i], y[i], lab, size=14) x = x[num.where(sizes==0.)] y = y[num.where(sizes==0.)] ax.scatter(x, y, c='black', alpha=0.4, s=200) ax.arrow(center_xyz[0]/1000., center_xyz[1]/1000., -num.sin(self.bazi/180.*num.pi), -num.cos(self.bazi/180.*num.pi), head_width=0.2, head_length=0.2) ax.set_ylabel("N-S [km]") ax.set_xlabel("E-W [km]") ColorbarBase(cax, cmap=cmap, norm=Normalize(vmin=sizes.min(), vmax=sizes.max())) fig.canvas.draw() def save(self): default_fn = 'BeamTraces_baz%s_slow%s.mseed' % (self.bazi, self.slow) fn = self.output_filename('Template for output files', default_fn), fn) def set_center_latlon(self): self.lat_c, self.lon_c, self.z_c = self.center_lat_lon(self.get_stations()) self.set_parameter('lat_c', self.lat_c) self.set_parameter('lon_c', self.lon_c) def save_station(self): fn = self.output_filename('Save Station') dump_stations([self.station_c], fn) def __snufflings__(): return [BeamForming()]